Meet Kahraman Keskinbora


Short Bio

Kahraman Keskinbora is a cross-disciplinary materials scientist with a Ph.D. in chemistry, an M.Sc. in nanotechnology, and a bachelor's degree in materials science and engineering. He works on nano-engineering of optical devices, micro- and nano-fabrication, and X-ray microscopy. Since July 2015, he is leading the Micro/Nano Optics group at Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems. When he is not working in the lab, in a meeting, or glued to a screen, he is most likely to be traveling. His wavefunction extends over the Atlantic and he can be found on either side of the pond at any given time. If you would like to learn more, read here.


New invited talk at Kolloquium der Mikrosystemtechnik on Ion Beam Lithography

June 25, 2020

I am excited to announce that I will give an online presentation on focused ion beam lithography and our own studies using the method at the colloquium of the Institut für Mikrointegration of the University of Stuttgart.

Selected Publications


2019, SPIE Spotlights

Published online by SPIE Spotlights, this e-book is an introductory tutorial for master's and Ph.D. students who are starting to use the FIB/SEM instruments for prototyping micro- and nano-optics.


3D Nanoprinted Plastic Kinoform X-ray Optics

U. T. Sanli, H. Ceylan,* I. Bykova, M. Weigand, M. Sitti, G. Schütz, K. Keskinbora*

2018, Advanced Materials

In this work, we show 3D nano-printing of kinoform X-ray lenses using two-photon polymerization. The lenses were tested at soft X-ray energies showed a superb performance.


3D Nanofabrication of High-Resolution Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plates
U. T. Sanli,* C. Jiao, M. Baluktsian, C. Grévent, K. Hahn, Y. Wang, V. Srot, G. Richter, I. Bykova, M. Weigand, G. Schütz, K. Keskinbora*

2018, Advanced Science

This substantive work lead by my group appeared in the journal Advanced Science, and the journal selected our artwork as one of the covers of the issue. In the paper, Umut fabricated first ML-FZPs using ALD that can image 15-nm structures in a test target. We characterized the multilayers extensively and showed that its interfaces exhibit excellent structural sharpness and are chemically abrupt.


High-throughput synthesis of modified Fresnel zone plate arrays via ion beam lithography

K. Keskinbora,* U. T. Sanli, M. Baluktsian,

C. Grévent, M. Weigand, G. Schütz

2018, BJNANO

In this work, I applied the direct-write IBL to further decrease the outermost zone width of FZP structures to 30 nm while decreasing the fabrication time to below 10 minutes. Then, the IBL method was applied to fabricate an array of high-resolution FZPs. Each of the FZPs in this array can resolve 20-nm wide features.


2014, Advanced Optical Materials

I spent a significant part of my Ph.D. to develop a gray-scale direct-write IBL protocol for fabricating kinoform X-ray lenses in hard materials, which appeared in the frontispiece of the journal Advanced Optical Materials. In this paper, I wrote a 3D 

Figure 1v2.png

2013, ACS Nano

In the work that appeared in ACS Nano, we described how direct-write ion beam lithography (IBL) to fabricate Fresnel Zone Plates (FZP) with outermost zone widths of 50 nm quickly. The fabrication part is followed by an extensive X-ray characterization.


Research Interests

An overview of the current research interests.

My research interests broadly revolve around nanotechnology and particularly nanofabrication of micro/nano-optics components. Design, materials selection, simulation, fabrication, and characterization are all parts of the research cycle we follow in my group. Here, I summarize the topics I have published so far.



Figure 11.png

Development of Nano-fabrication Routes


Soft-X-ray Spectro-Microscopy

Design, fabrication & testing of diffractive optics, and photonic devices.

Synergistic combination of Focused Ion Beam Lithography (FIB/IBL), Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and 3D Nano-printing.

Advanced imaging for testing of diffractive optics and investigation of complex materials.

2PP of a Fresnel Zone Plate

A femtosecond infrared laser scans the surface of a substrate, writing an FZP structure. The white light is the luminescence from the polymer upon laser irradiation. Structuring was done in Center for Nanoscale Science at Harvard.


Micrograph Gallery

I was lucky to work with amazing microscopes, and over the years I gathered many interesting images. Here are some of those images relating to both my research and outreach activities.

STXM Lamella
Dot Pattern
SEM image of a chip cross-section
Diamond particles
FZP with a beamstop
MPG's Minerva
Ant Overview
Ant head.
Ant Compound Eye
Compound Eye Detail

Get in Touch

Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems
Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569, Stuttgart


Teacher Writing a Formula on a Blackboard


©2019 by Kahraman Keskinbora. Proudly created with

Diamond particles

Diamonds are forever.